About Hofstede


Hofstede born 2 October 1928 in Haarlem. He works on researches related to the organizational studies. The results of his studies show that there is a national and regional cultural group that affects the behavior of societies and organizations.

  1. Power Distance Index

PDI-related to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.

For example Arab countries, the power distance is very high (80), while the United States scores a 40 on the cultural scale a more unequal distribution.

  1. Individual versus collective (IDV)

Individualism means that everyone is expected to look after himself and his own family. On the other hand, collectivism in which people expects the groups to which they belong to look after them and people have large extended families.

For example, Germany can be considered as individualistic while Guatemala has strong collectivism.

  1. Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)

It shows what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.


Uncertainty avoidance scores are the highest in Latin American countries, Southern, and Eastern Europe countries including German-speaking countries and Japan. They are lower for Anglo, Nordic, and Chinese culture countries. For example, Germany has a high UAI (65) and Belgium even more (94) compared to Sweden (29) or Denmark (23) despite their geographic proximity.

  1. Long-Term Orientation (LTO)

Long- term oriented societies foster pragmatic virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular, saving, persistence, and adapting to changing circumstances.

  • A characteristic of the countries with high scoring are:
  • Persistence (perseverance)
  • ordering relationships by status
  • the possibility of having many truths (depending on time and context)
  • thrift
  • having a sense of shame


High long-term orientation scores are typically found in East Asia, with China having 118, Hong Kong 96 and Japan 88. They are moderate in Eastern and Western Europe.

  1. Masculinity (MAS)

The nature of the dominant values in the organization is related to the Masculinity.

For example, Masculinity is extremely low in Nordic countries: Norway scores 8 and Sweden only 5. In contrast, Masculinity is very high in Japan (95), and in European countries like Hungary, Austria and Switzerland influenced by German culture.

  1. Indulgence versus restraint (IND)

Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.


Indulgence scores are highest in Latin America, parts of Africa, the Anglo world and Nordic Europe; restraint is mostly found in East Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Muslim world.

(Neill, 2012) (extra, 2008) (Dimnsions of national culture) (Long-Term Orientation)


Dimensions of national culture. (n.d.). Retrieved from geert-hofstede:

extra, O. (2008, November 28). Geert Hofstede. Retrieved from economist.:

Long-Term Orientation. (n.d.). Retrieved from clearlycultural:

Neill, C. (2012, January 7). GEERT HOFSTEDE: THE 6 DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE. Retrieved from conorneil: